Senate opens climate change laws debate (Financial Times, Reuters, 27 October 2009)
The US Senate’s environment and public works committee begins hearings on a future climate change bill today. Most Senate Republicans oppose the bill, and some will propose an alternative solution to the cap-and-trade scheme at the centre of the proposed legislation. This will involve a four-part plan to boost nuclear power, expand offshore drilling for natural gas, invest in R&D of alternative energy, and convert half the car and truck fleet to electric power. The consultancy Wood Mackenzie says the both the House and Senate legislation are more onerous than their counterpart in Europe for the refining industry, and would end up costing the industry USD 100 billion a year within three years. Refineries would have to purchase credits for stationary emissions as well as those from the subsequent combustion of fuels.
UK expected to miss 2018-22 carbon reduction target (Cambridge Econometrics, 27 October 2020)
In its latest report on energy and environment in the UK, Cambridge Econometrics forecasts that the UK will meet its first two “carbon budgets” periods to 2018, but not the third (2018-2022). Doing so will require more policies in the non-ETS sectors, notably regarding renewable energy for heat and transport, for which there are currently no firm policies in place. The report also predicts UK industry, notably the power sector, will be a greater purchaser of EU ETS allowances during the third carbon budget phase, equivalent to an annual average of around 20 MtCO2 over the 5-year period. This is due to the UK not meeting its renewable energy target, and no new nuclear power plants modeled in this period due to lack of firm policy direction.
More funds needed to reach targets, says Deutsche (Financial Times, 27 October; BusinessGreen 28 October 2009)
Deutsche Asset Management and Columbia University’s Climate Center have released their “climate tracker” report, arguing that policies in place today, even if they had the maximum possible impact, are insufficient to limit global temperature increase to 2 degrees C. The report says an additional USD 3,000 billion is needed to meet EU and pending US targets, with policy makers needing to attract the investor community to solve the problem. The onus is on regulators, according to Kevin Parker, global head of Deutsche Asset Management, since private capital currently has “lots of other opportunities to put their money in where regulatory risk is not a problem”. The report tracks policies in 109 countries and ranks them based on the risks presented to clean tech investors.
‘Investment strategy’ needed to cut emissions (EurActiv, 27 October 2009)
Richard Cowart, director of European programmes for the Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), says that emission reductions from a successful cap-and-trade scheme largely need to come from complementary policies, notably improved energy efficiency. He says the EU ETS has something to learn from the portion of carbon revenues dedicated to energy efficiency and other clean energy under the US Waxman-Markey bill, in what he called a “cap-and-invest strategy”. Carbon revenue should be used specifically to meet climate objectives, according to Cowart. Given the large funds the EU ETS could potentially invest in these areas, Cowart warns that member states need to make sure they would have the capacity to spend the money effectively and efficiently.
U.S. seeks more clean energy market access in China (Reuters, 28 October 2009)
US Commerce Secretary Gary Locke said he would push for a more level playing field for American companies in China’s clean energy sector, as part of bilateral discussions in the annual Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade (JCCT) meeting.
Climate deal not expected during Obama’s China visit (Reuters, 28 October 2009)
US Special Envoy for Climate Change Todd Stern said not agreement between the US and China on climate change was expected during President Obama’s visit to Beijing next month. He said the meeting would seek “as much common understanding as we possibly can in order to facilitate an agreement in Copenhagen”.
Chu urges action on clean energy (Financial Times, 28 October 2009)
US Energy Secretary Steve Chu sought to instil a sense of urgency in Senate committee hearings on a climate change bill, arguing that large-scale deployment of clean energy technologies in the next few decades would be inevitable, and that the US was currently not up to speed in the sector. Mr. Chu said: “The only question is: which countries will invent, manufacture and export these clean technologies and which countries will become dependent on foreign products?”
Convince public on climate to save planet: experts (Reuters, 28 October 2009)
Experts at a climate change psychology conference in London argued that the public needed to be convinced of the threat of climate change, and thus become more involved in policy decisions and exert pressure on governments to take action. The issue of climate change is not necessarily tangible to the public, and care must be taken for communication on the issue to be “meaningful, immediate, tangible and concrete”, according to environmental psychology professor David Uzzell.
EPA Crafting Multiple Air Pollutant Strategy (New York Times, 27 October 2009)
The US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Gina McCarthy says the Agency is looking to coordinate various rules targeting different pollutants (sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, mercury, particulate matter, carbon dioxide, etc.) into a “multipollutant” or “sector-based” strategy. This would allow investments, especially in the power sector, to tackle clean air as a whole, not just individual pollutants. Applauded by industry and environmentalists, some analysts the initiative will be challenging, not least due to the EPA’s lack of resources.
Australia can reach political deal on carbon: government (Reuters, 26 October 2009)
Both the Australian government and opposition parties indicated a political compromise allowing the passage of climate legislation in the Senate next month may be possible. Both hinted that discussions and negotiations were ongoing, with deputy climate change minister Greg Combet saying: “It is conceivable that the government can reach an accommodation with the (opposition) Liberal Party but that remains to be seen.”
UK Green Fiscal Commission: Green tax shift would have economic and environmental benefits (press release, 26 October 2009)
The UK’s Green Fiscal Commission has released its final report on the implications of a major “green” tax shift. The report concludes that even a large-scale shift towards green taxation is “economically sensible and environmentally effective”, leading to reduced emissions, stable revenues, and can boost low-carbon industries. The Commission also finds taxation can be socially acceptable, especially if accompanied by appropriate complementary measures.
http://www.greenfiscalcommission.org.uk/index.php/site/about/press_releases_and_briefings/; Report http://www.greenfiscalcommission.org.uk/index.php/site/about/final_report/
U.S. households could cut emissions sharply: study (Reuters, 26 October 2009)
A research team led by Michigan State University has estimated that 7.4% of current US emissions could be eliminated in 10 years if households used existing technologies to become more energy efficient, including fuel-efficient cars and heating systems. The team identified 33 actions that would lead to these emission reductions, which cost little or present attractive returns on investments, and do not require changes in lifestyle. Promoting more energy-efficient habits could cut US household GHG emissions 20% in 10 years, according to the report’s authors.
World Bank: Green Growth is Possible in Mexico (World Bank press release, 26 October 2009)
The World Bank has published its study on low-carbon development in Mexico, which identifies a series of 40 actions that could reduce Mexico’s CO2 emissions in the short-term at low costs. The report concludes Mexico could reduce emissions 42% per year by 2030 without sacrificing economic development. Reductions are to be found in the transport, energy (power, oil and gas), agriculture and forestry sectors, as well as through improved energy efficiency across all sectors.
Senate Democrats set climate bill industry permits (Reuters, 24 October 2009)
Some details on allocation of free permits under US Senate climate legislation were revealed; these will mostly be phased-out by 2030. Local electric distribution companies would receive 30%, local natural gas distribution companies 9%, and merchant coal firms 5% of free permits. Energy-intensive manufacturers in steel, cement, paper, glass and other industries would receive 4% of the permits in 2012 and 2013, rising to 15% in 2014 and 2015. Electric utility customers would receive 35% of the permits to compensate for higher energy prices. EPA analysis finds that both the House and Senate bills would have a relatively small cost impact on consumers.
White House encouraged by climate bill status (Reuters, 22 October 2009)
Even if legislators are not able to pass climate legislation in the US Senate by December, the White House says progress on the bill is encouraging. Carol Browner in an interview indicated that bipartisan dialogue is ongoing and that some conversations have been “very encouraging”. She believes that in the absence of legislation, the US can still point to the domestic climate change mitigation actions it has taken in the past 10 months, since President Obama came into office.
EU 2010 budget: more money for strategic energy projects (European Parliament, 22 October 2009)
The European Parliament has supported allocating an extra EUR 1.5 billion to strategic energy projects as part of the EU’s economic recovery plan. The extra funding would include EUR 800 million for energy networks, EUR 250 million for CCS, and EUR 450 million for offshore wind grid systems. However, the Parliament rejected member states’ request that the funding be taken from other programmes, insisting funding should not be increased to the detriment of existing programmes, but drawn from reserves in the EU’s financial perspective.
‘Bipartisan support’ likely to underpin US Green Bank proposal (Environmental Finance, 22 October 2009)
The proposal for US clean energy “bank”, included in both the House and Senate versions of currently debated climate legislation, could be the “most bipartisan” part of the bill, thus increasing its prospects. The bank would be an agency that would help secure financing for projects having difficulty doing so in private markets, expedite projects in a broader scale, lower costs of promising renewable energy technologies. The agency could be either independent from the DOE and include finance sector participants, or report directly to the energy secretary; details are to be negotiated.
India PM seeks global hub for clean-tech research (Reuters, 22 October 2009)
India’s Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has called for a global platform to coordinate and bring together clean energy technology research, allowing innovations to be considered public goods and accessible to all.
NYC sees economic gold in green jobs (Reuters, 22 October 2009)
New York City is planning on creating over 13 000 “green” jobs over the next decade, part of which will involve rivalling London to make the city a centre for carbon trading. The city will run a green finance training centre for laid-off workers and entrepreneurs, run by the State University of New York’s Levin Institute.
President Obama Announces $3.4 Billion to Spur Smart Electric Grids (EERE, 28 October 2009)
One hundred smart grid projects, funded in amounts of USD 400,000 to USD 200 million, are to be funded by USD 3.4 billion in American Reinvestment and Recovery Act funds, matched by USD 4.7 billion in private investments. Much of the funding will support power grid upgrades, such as smart transformers, automated substations and sensors. Other supported projects include installation of smart meters, in-home energy displays, smart thermostats and appliances, and other load control devices.
Big polluters to reap benefit of climate deal (Reuters, 28 October 2009)
A shift towards low-carbon technologies will largely benefit utilities and engineering companies, particularly large, established ones well placed to snap up smaller companies developing products and receive government subsidies. This is something not all stakeholders are happy about. There is concern that insufficient funds will reach smaller companies and entrepreneurs. Several large companies are also considered to have an “unfair headstart”, some have benefitted from windfall profits under the EU ETS and others continue to receive tax breaks for oil and gas exploration.
GE advanced gas turbine cuts fuel use, emissions (Reuters, 27 October 2009)
GE Energy is introducing an upgraded Frame 7FA gas turbine for gas-fired power plants, which consumes significantly less fuel than the existing 7FA turbine, thus resulting in greater cost savings and CO2 emissions. The company has announced shipments of the upgraded turbine will begin in early 2012.
Italy a risk for climate change investors: Deutsche (Reuters, 26 October 2009)
In contrast with countries that either do or do not have feed-in tariffs for renewable energy, said a Deutsche Bank report released Monday, a country like Italy presents a higher risk rating for investment because it simply had no clear policy in place.
Toshiba, others developing small nuclear reactors: report (Reuters, 23 October 2009)
To take advantage of what could be a shift toward nuclear power in order to reduce CO2 emissions, Toshiba Corp, Hitachi Ltd and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries are all developing small-scale nuclear reactors, according to Nikkei business daily. Toshiba is developing a 10,000 kW reactor, which could be approved by a US regulatory board by autumn 2010, while Mitsubishi Heavy is developing a 350,000kW reactor. In partnership with GE, Hitachi is developing reactors with output of 400-600,000kW.
Total warns of energy insecurity (Financial Times, 23 October 2009)
In an interview with the Financial Times, Total’s chief executive insists that environmental policy needs to alongside energy security policy, and that concern over energy access also needs to be taken to Copenhagen. He supports long-term and clear policies to reduce GHG emissions, saying it is risky for companies to invest “without knowing what the contractual framework on carbon will be.” He also warned that imposing carbon taxes would deter investment in oil and gas, and cause a supply crunch since alternative sources of energy are not yet available.
GE calls for trade deal in environmental goods (Reuters, 22 October 2009)
GE’s senior counsel for intellectual property and trade, Thaddeus Burns, says the company is calling for a multilateral trade deal on environmental goods and services needs to be negotiated outside the Doha round. Clean technology producers face both tariff and non-tariff barriers, which vary widely from country to country. Brazilian diplomat to the WTO Flavio Damico said Brazilian ethanol – treated as an agricultural product – also faces stiff tariffs.
Universal phone charger standard approved (ITU, 22 October; BBC, 23 October 2009)
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has approved the design of a new universal energy-efficient phone charger, which can be used with any make and model of phone. The new model will reduce the number of chargers to be produced, shipped and discarded. It also allows for a 50% reduction in standby power consumption. While manufacturers are not obliged to adopt the universal chargers, some have already signed up to it according to the ITU. Sony Ericsson will roll out the charger with new products next year.
Panasonic Develops Energy-Saving Simulation Technology for Factories (JFS, 20 October 2009)
Panasonic has developed a simulation technology that allows companies to measure the efficient operating conditions of energy-consuming equipment. Panasonic will use the technology in its own factories to reduce emissions from high-speed drying in furnaces, air-conditioning in clean rooms, and supplying high pressure air.
Honda puts rivals in the shade (Financial Times, 28 October 2009)
Honda Motor showed surprising resilience with a net profit for the year of JPY 155 billion, alone amongst rivals Toyota and Nissan, thanks to its focus on small, fuel-efficient cars and motorcycles; sales of these vehicles have fallen less sharply than those of larger cars.
UK car firm debuts light-weight plug-in hybrid (BusinessGreen, 28 October 2009)
Axon Automotive has unveiled a plug-in hybrid vehicle using ultra-lightweight carbon fibre technology chassis. The company says the combination of a hybrid engine and the lightweight carbon fibre will deliver fuel efficiency of over 100mpg, and CO2 emissions at 50g/km. The company expects to deliver cars by 2011, which it says will be available at an “affordable price”.
European electricity companies call for standardisation of plug-in vehicle charging infrastructure (Eurelectric, 27 October 2009)
EU electric industry union Eurelectric has launched a task force to develop cross-industry agreements on standards for the deployment of electric vehicles within the EU. These would cover both the hardware for recharging vehicles and the communications software.
Former GM plant to make Fisker hybrid cars (Reuters, 27 October 2009; EERE, 28 October 2009)
Fisker Automative has purchased a former GM manufacturing plant to begin manufacturing plug-in hybrid vehicles from 2012 onwards. Fisker is using USD 359 million out of a USD 528.7 million loan from the US Department of Energy’s Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing (ATVM) loan programme to revive manufacturing at the plant. The remaining loan amount is to be used for completing the company’s first plug-in hybrid vehicle, and to develop manufacturing processes, tools and equipment.
ASEAN gearing up to be global green auto hub (Reuters, 22 October 2009)
Trade ministry from ASEAN countries have asked regional trade industry bodies to draft common guidelines for green cars, with a view to establish ASEAN as a global base for the production of green vehicles. The strategy will leverage Thailand’s role as an auto producer – already promoting flex-fuel vehicles – and take advantage of large car markets in Indonesia and Malaysia.
US performs hydrogen funding U-turn (BusinessGreen, 22 October 2009)
Contrary to a request by US energy secretary Steve Chu that no funding for hydrogen cars be allocated for the 2010-11 DOE budget, Congress added a USD 187 million appropriation for hydrogen car development. Chu has attempted to reduce funding for hydrogen and fuel cell development, wanting to focus on technologies that could be deployed in the next two decades. The Senate approved the appropriation bill which is now awaiting the US President’s signature.
Iata warns Europe over emission plans (Financial Times, 27 October 2009)
The International Air Transport Industry Association (Iata) is criticising EU plans to include aviation in the EU ETS, saying it will impose increased costs on the industry and inhibit its ability to invest in more fuel efficient aircraft. Iata chief executive Giovanni Bisignani said inclusion in the ETS could contravene the 1944 Chicago Convention, which says no charges can be levied on international flights other than those for navigation and landing. Iata has predicted the airline industry will lose USD 11 billion this year.
Developing countries ‘not ready’ for clean tech transfers (EurActiv, 26 October 2009)
Jürgen Lefevere of the European Commission’s environment directorate warned last week that sectoral crediting mechanisms would require significant institutional capacity in implementing countries. New institutional arrangements surrounding such mechanisms need to take into account role of governments and entities in the sector, and must be in place “fairly quickly”. Though climate negotiations on sectoral crediting mechanisms are difficult, Mr. Lefevere said that in bilateral discussions the EC was seeing “very positive reactions”. Daniele Agostini of Enel said sector-based mechanisms would not make sense in any country, citing market structure. Nick Campbell, of BusinessEurope’s climate change working group said the financial community’s incentive for involvement in sectoral crediting mechanisms was as yet unclear, as this appeared to be a largely “government-to-government process”.
Singapore May Start Carbon Trading on New Exchange (Bloomberg, 26 October 2009)
Singapore is setting itself up to become a carbon trading hub, extending incentive schemes to include emission derivatives, and including carbon credits in its new electronic platform for derivative contracts to be set up by the end of the year.
Poland, EU Willing to ‘Compromise’ in CO2 Talks, Ministry Says (Bloomberg, 26 October 2009)
Following the European Court of First Instance’s ruling against the EU regarding allocation of permits under the Polish and Estonian ETS national allocation plans, Poland and the European Commission have been in discussion. According to Tomasz Chruszczow of Poland’s Environment ministry, “there’s a lot of good work being done and there’s good will on both sides.” The EU must now decide whether to appeal the court’s ruling or accept the Polish plan.
Indonesia: Beware the carbon cowboys (Cop15, 26 October 2009)
Indonesia’s Forestry Ministry is warning local communities in rainforest provinces against foreign “carbon brokers”; local communities are asked to sign memoranda of understanding used to attract foreign investment in Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) projects. However, in many cases the money never reaches the community.
Poland to sign CO2 deal with Spain and Ireland (Reuters, 26 October 2009)
After completing necessary domestic “green investment” legislation in July, Poland is ready to sell AAUs, which must then be invested in programmes that reduce GHG emissions. Poland will sell EUR 40 million worth of AAUs to both Spain and Ireland through the EBRD’s Multilateral Carbon Credit Fund. The amount of AAUs involved has not been disclosed.
Investment risks could maim Kyoto emissions scheme (Reuters, 23 October 2009)
Political risk, uncertainty over the CDM’s future and concerns over counter-party credit could lead to investment in the CDM dropping further – more than the 12% in 2008 from 2007 levels (USD 7.4 billion). Carbon market players are concerned over the acceptability of CERs from China in a post-2012 carbon market, saying investing in CDM projects in Africa are a good hedge against such uncertainty, though political risk remains a deterrent to greater investment. CER project owners are now also looking at potential buyers’ credit worthiness.
India, Norway sign MoU (Business Standard, 23 October 2009)
India and Norway have signed a three-year memorandum of understanding (MoU) to facilitate development and implementation of CDM projects, defining priority areas for such projects, as well as potentially for other development activities, such as adaptation, R&D and capacity building. The MoU will be reviewed regularly during bilateral consultations as part of the Indo-Norway Joint Working Group on Environment.
Australia boosts international efforts on climate (Reuters, 28 October 2009)
Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd has accepted a role as a friend of the Copenhagen summit chair, offered by Danish Prime Minister Lars Lokke Rasmussen. Friends of the summit will engage in regular discussion up to Copenhagen, and a spokesperson for Rudd said the Prime Minister would go to Copenhagen if it became a leaders’ meeting and his presence could help bring about an effective outcome.
Brazil eyes deeper CO2 cuts, backs U.N. forest plan (Reuters, 27 October 2009)
Brazil’s Environment Minister Carlos Minc said Brazil was considering a 40% reduction in emissions from anticipated 2020 levels; this corresponds to 2020 emissions of 1.7 Mt of CO2 equivalent, roughly the level of emissions in 1994. Brazil’s previously announced target was to maintain 2005 emission levels in 2020. Approximately half this reduction would come from reduced deforestation, and the rest from agriculture, use of biofuels and reforestation. He also announced Brazil would conditionally back the inclusion of a REDD (reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation) scheme in a Copenhagen agreement.
Backers of UN climate treaty look to 2010 for deal (Reuters, BusinessGreen, 27 October 2009)
Event those supporting a strong climate agreement in Copenhagen are looking at further talks in 2010, aiming for Copenhagen to establish a political agreement and commitment to fighting climate change. Norway and Sweden are still aiming for a legally binding agreement, saying a new conference in early 2010 should be called if this cannot be achieved in Copenhagen. UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon’s climate change advisor Janos Pasztor said the UN was putting in place plans for a possible series of “post-Copenhagen ” meetings.
Public finance can scale up climate investment (Reuters/UNEP, 26 October 2009)
A new report commissioned by UNEP outlines creative public policies needed to trigger the private investment needed to bring USD 500 billion a year to developing countries to help them undertake low-carbon growth. According to the report, well designed public mechanisms could leverage between USD3 and USD15 for every USD1 of public money spent.
Catalysing Low Carbon Growth in Developing Economies: public finance mechanisms to scale up private sector investment in climate solutions: http://www.unep.org/PDF/PressReleases/Public_financing_mechanisms_report.pdf; http://www.reuters.com/article/GCA-GreenBusiness/idUSTRE59P0UV20091026?sp=true; http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=599&ArticleID=6352&l=en
Gordon Brown’s climate change finance package hangs in balance (Times Online, 26 October 2009)
According to the Times, two groups with the EU 27 states are looking to block the UK’s proposal (backed by the Netherlands and Denmark) that the EU pledge EUR 10 billion to help developing nations meet their obligations under a future climate agreement. Poland and nine other East-European countries say they cannot afford to help other countries, while Germany and others (including France and Italy) say it is wrong to put a funding figure down before Copenhagen.
Japan pledges $400 million climate change loan to Indonesia (Reuters, 25 October 2009)
Japan’s Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama offered a USD 400 million loan to the government of Indonesia to tackle global warming. The loan is part of what has been dubbed the “Hatoyama Initiative”, under which Japan will provide financial and technical assistance to developing countries to address climate change.
Emissions Cuts Make Sense, But Yudhoyono’s Numbers Don’t Add Up (Jakarta Globe, 25 October 2009)
While Indonesia should be proud to have announced emission cuts of at least a quarter from current levels by 2020, Gadjah Mada University lecturer Ahmad Maryudi thinks the government should first have analysed whether these could be met. Reductions will need to come from the forestry sector, where contradictory policies, slow reforestation, and methodological challenges mean Indonesia might not be able to meet its target. Mr. Maryudi calls for “proper analysis and detailed plans”, and not signing up to mandatory cuts “merely for the applause of other nations.”
Japan calls on India to make climate commitment (Reuters, 24 October 2009)
Japan’s Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama told Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh that he hoped India “will make an international commitment based on their steps taken domestically,” saying this was “indispensable for the success of Copenhagen”. Singh requested Japan’s assistance with more efficient use of energy, renewable energy technology and nuclear power generation; Japan remains cautious regarding providing assistance for nuclear power development.
Japan may weaken CO2 cut target if no global pact (Reuters, 23 October 2009)
Japan’s environment minister Sakihito Ozawa said the country’s target for a 25% reduction in GHG emissions by 2020 could be revised if all major emitters do not come to an agreement at global climate talks in Copenhagen in December. Though he said he’d like to go ahead with the target, the Japanese government had announced the target as conditional.
Africa afraid of being taken hostage (Cop 15, 23 October 2009)
Analysts have been debating whether a weak global climate change agreement or no climate deal at all (i.e. African countries would not sign in Copenhagen) is worse for African countries, given their high vulnerability to the impacts of climate change and need for financing.
Singh calls for sharing of clean power (Financial Times, 22 October 2009)
India’s Prime Minister Manmohan Singh likened environmentally friendly and clean energy technology to HIV/Aids medication, saying the loosening of pharmaceutical patents that occurred needs to be replicated for clean energy technologies, which should be considered a public good. Officials in developed countries expressed frustration at the remarks, following changed discourse on the issue which focused on collaboration and co-operation on green technology. However, officials pointed out that it was not unusual for countries to convey populist messages in public and be more conciliatory in private.
Poor may need to curb CO2 by 15 percent: U.N. (Reuters, 22 October 2009)
Yvo de Boer says that if developed countries agree to reduce their emission 40% by 2020 from 1990 levels, all but the poorest countries will also need to significantly reduce the growth in their GHG emissions, possibly by around 15% below business-as-usual by 2020.
UNFCCC reports GHG emissions data from industrialised countries (UNFCCC, 21 October 2009)
Data from the 40 industrialised countries with reporting obligations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) indicate that emissions rose 1% between 2006 and 2007. The group of countries’ emissions were 4% below 1990 levels in 2007. Countries with obligations under the Kyoto Protocol saw their emissions virtually unchanged from 2006 levels ( 0.1%).
http://unfccc.int/files/press/news_room/press_releases_and_advisories/application/pdf/20091021_pr_ghg_data.pdf; inventory http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2009/sbi/eng/12.pdf; compilation and accounting report by country http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2009/cmp5/eng/15a01.pdf